LMPG: Laboratory Support for Emergency Toxicology
(Draft Guidelines)

  1. Kwong TC, Ryan RM.  Detection of intrauterine illicit drug exposure by newborn drug testing.  Clin Chem 1997;43;235-42.

  2. The Office of Applied Studies.  Mid-Year 1998 Preliminary Emergency Department Data from the Drug Abuse Warning Network.  Dept. Health Human Services Rockville, MD: 1999.

  3. McCaig LF.  National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey: 1992 Emergency Department Summary.  US Health Human Services, 1994.

  4. Litovitz TL, Klein-Schwartz W, Caravati EM, Youniss J, Crouch B, Lee S.  1988 Annual Report of the American Association of Poison Control Centers Toxic Exposure Surveillance System.  Am J Emerg Med 1999;17:435-87.

  5. Durback LF, Scharman EJ, Brown R.  Emergency physician’s perceptions of drug screens at their own hospitals [abstract].  J Toxicol Clin Toxicol 1996;34:626-7.

  6. Jerrard DA.  “Designer drugs” —a current perspective.  J Emerg Med 1990;8:733-41.

  7. Ruttenber AJ.  Stalking the elusive designer drugs: techniques for monitoring new problems in drug abuse.  J Addict Dis 1991;11:71-87.

  8. Jarvie DR, Simpson D.  Drug screening: evaluation of the Toxi-Lab TLC system.  Ann Clin Biochem 1986;23:76-84.

  9. Kalasinsky KS, Schaefer T, Binder SR.  Forensic application of an automated drug-profiling system.  J Anal Toxicol 1995;19:412-8.

  10. Brooks KE, Smith NB.  Versatile, efficient system for extracting drugs from urine for gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric analysis.  Clin Chem 1989;35:2100-3.

  11. Fitzgerald RL, Rivera JD, Herold DA.  Broad spectrum drug identification directly from urine, using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.  Clin Chem 1999;45:1224-34.

  12. Levine BS, Smith ML.  Effects of diphenhydramine on immunoassays of phencyclidine in urine.  Clin Chem 1990;35:1258.

  13. Poklis A, Edinboro LE, Lee JS, Crooks CR.  Evaluation of a colloidal metal immunoassay device for the detection of tricyclic antidepressants in urine.  J Toxicol Clin Toxicol 1997;35:77-82.

  14. El Sohly MA, Salamone SJ.  Prevalence of drugs used in cases of alleged sexual assault. J Anal Toxicol 1999;23:141-6.

  15. McNall M, Remafedi G.  Relationship of amphetamine and other substance use to unprotected intercourse among young men who have sex with men.  Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 1999;153:1130-5.

  16. Selden BS, Clark RF, Curry SC.  Marijuana.  Emerg Med Clin North Am 1990;8:527-39.

  17. Mofenson HC, Caraccio TR.  Toxidromes.  Comp Ther 1985;11:46-52.

  18. Nice A, Leikin JB, Maturen A, Madsen-Konczyk LJ, Zell M, Hryhorczuk DO.  Toxidrome recognition to improve efficiency of emergency urine drug screens.  Ann Emerg Med 1988;17:676-80.

  19. Bosse GM, Matyunas NJ.  Delayed toxidromes.  J Emerg Med 1999;17:679-90.

  20. Raymond RC, Warren M, Morris RW, Leikin JB.  Periodicity of presentations of drugs of abuse and overdose in an emergency department.  Clin Toxicol 1992;30:467-78.

  21. Manyike PT, Kharasch ED, Kalhorn TF, Slattery JT.  Contribution of CYP2E1 and CYP3A to acetaminophen reactive metabolite formation.  Clin Pharmacol Therap 2000;67:275-82.

  22. Smood J.  Acetaminophen.  In: Abhababian RV, Emergency medicine. The core curriculum.  Lippincott-Raven, Philadephia, 1998:1010-4.

  23. Rumack BH.  Acetaminophen overdose in children and adolescents.  Pediatr Clin North AM 1986;33:691-701.

  24. Sporer KA, Khayam-Bashi H.  Acetaminophen and salicylate serum levels in patients with suicidal ingestion or altered mental status.  Am J Emerg Med 1996;14:443-6.

  25. Ashbourne JF, Olson KR, Khayam-Bashi H.  Value of rapid screening for acetaminophen in all patients with intentional drug overdose.  Ann Emerg Med 1989;18:1035-38.

  26. Camara PD, Audette L, Velletri K, Breitenbecher P, Rosner M, Griffiths WC.  False-positive immunoassay results for urine benzodiazepine in patients receiving oxaprozin (Daypro).  Clin Chem 1995;41:115-6.

  27. Lee PR, Shahala DE.  Changes to the cutoff levels for opiates for Federal Workplace Drug Testing Programs.  Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration.  Fed Register 1995;60:575-85.

  28. Anderson D, McComb R, Bowers GN, Hill D.  Exploring currently used threshold concentrations on drug of abuse testing. [Abstract]  Clin Chem 1991;37:993.

  29. Meatherall R.  Benzodiazepine screening using EMIT IIâ and TDxâ: urine hydrolysis pretreatment required.  J Anal Toxicol 1994;18;385-90.

  30. Simonsson P, Linden A, Lindberg S.  Effect of b–glucuronidase on urinary benzodiazepine concentrations determined by fluorescence polarization immunoassay.  Clin Chem 1995;41:920-3.

  31. Meatherall RC, Fraser AD.  CEDIA dau benzodiazepine screening assay: a reformulation.  J Anal Toxicol 1998;22:270-3.

  32. Koch TR. Raglin RL, Kirk S, Bruni JF.  Improved screening for benzodiazepine metabolites in urine using the Triage Panel for Drugs of Abuse.  J Anal Toxicol 1994;18:168-72.

  33. Stanley S, Jeganathan A, Wood T, Henry P, Turner S, Woods WE, et al.  Morphine and etorphine: XIV> Detection by ELISA in equine urine.  J Anal Toxicol 1991;15:305-10.

  34. Runciman WB.  Sympathomimetic amines.  Anaesth Int Care 1980;8:289-309.

  35. D’Nicuola J, Jones R, Levine B, Smith ML.  Evaluation of six commercial amphetamine and methamphetamine immunoassays for cross-reactivity to phenylpropanolamine and ephedrine in urine.  J Anal Toxicol 1993;16:211-3.

  36. Turner GJ, Colbert DL, Chowdry BZ.  A broad spectrum immunoassay using fluorescence polarization for the detection of amphetamines in urine.  Ann Clin Biochem 1991;28:588-94.

  37. Wu AHB, Hill DW, Crouch D, Hodnett CN, mcCurdy HH.  Minimal standards for the performance and interpretation of toxicology tests in legal proceedings.  J Foren Sci 1999;44:516-22.

  38. Forensic Toxicology Laboratory Guidelines.  Society of Forensic Toxicologists Inc., Colorodo Springs, CO; 1991.

  39. Kwong TC, Jenny RW, Jortani SA, Pinder RD.  Clinical breath alcohol testing.  Proposed quality assurance guidelines. Am Assoc Clin Chem TDM Toxicol Division, 2000.

  40. Highway safety programs; conforming products list of screening devices to measure alcohol in bodily fluids.  Fed Regist 1994;59:61923-4.

  41. National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards: User Demonstration of Performance for Precision and Accuracy; proposed guideline. NCCLS Document EP-15, Wayne, PA.

  42. Gerson B.  Alcohol.  Clin Lab Med 1990;10:355-74.

  43. McMartin KE, Ambre JJ Tephly TR.  Methanol poisoning in human subjects.  Role for formic acid accumulation in the metabolic acidosis.  Am J Med 1980;68:414-8.

  44. Jacobsen D, Hewlett TP, Webb R, Brown ST, Ordinario AT, McMartin KE.  Ethylene glycol intoxication: evaluation of kinetics and crystalluria.  Am J Med 1988;84:145-52.

  45. Brent J, McMartin K, Phillips S, Burkhart KK, Donovan JW, Wells M, Kulig K.  Fomepizole for the treatment of ethylene glycol poisoning.  Methylpyrazole for Toxic Alcohols Study Group.  N Engl J Med 1999;450:832-8.

  46. Burns MJ, Graudins A, Aaron CK, McMartin K, Brent J.  Treatment of methanol poison with intravenous 4-methylpyrazole.  Ann Emerg Med 1997;30:829-32.

  47. Vinet B.  An enzymic assay for the specific determination of methanol in serum.  Clin Chem 1987;33:2204-8.

  48. Ochs ML, Glick MR, Ryder KW, Moorehead WR.  Improved method for emergency screening for ethylene glycol in serum.  Clin Chem 1988;34:1507-8.39.

  49. Eder AF, McGrath CM, Dowdy YG, Tomaszewski JE, Rosenberg FM, Wilson RB, Wolf BA, Shaw LM.  Ethylene glycol poisoning: toxicokinetic and analytical factors affecting laboratory diagnosis.  Clin Chem 1998;44:168-77.

  50. Jarvie DR, Simpson D.  Simple screening tests for the emergency identification of methanol and ethylene glycol in poisoned patients.  Clin Chem 1990;36:1957-61.

  51. Hoffman RS, Smilkstein MJ, Howland MA, Goldfrank LR.  Osmolal gaps revisited: normal values and limitations.  J Toxicol Clin Toxicol 1993;31:81-93.

  52. Glaser DS.  Utility of the serum osmolal gap in the diagnosis of methanol or ethylene glycol ingestion.  Ann Emerg Med 1996;27:343-6.

  53. Aabakken L, Johansen KS, Rydningen EB, Bredesen JE, Ovrebo S, Jacobsen D.  Osmolal and anion gaps in patients admitted to an emergency medicine department.  Human Exp Toxicol 1994;13:131-4.

  54. Inaba H, Hirasawa H, Mizuguchi T.  Serum osmolality gap in postoperative patients in intensive care.  Lancet 1987;8546:1331-5.

  55. Braden GL, Strayhorn CH, Germain MJ, Mulhern JG, Skutches CL.  Increased osmolal gap in alcoholic acidosis.  Arch Intern Med 1993;153:2377-80.

  56. Warden CR.  Alcohols. In: Abhababian RV, Emergency medicine. The core curriculum.  Lippincott-Raven, Philadephia, 1998:1021-3.

  57. Legal E.  Über eine neue Acetonreaktion und deren Verwendbarkeit zur Harnuntersuchung.  Chem Zbl 1883;14:652.

  58. Csako G.  False positive results for ketone with the drug mesna and other free-sulfhydryl compounds.  Clin Chem 1987;33:289-92.

  59. Beasley DM, Glass WI.  Cyanide poisoning: pathophysiology and treatment recommendations.  Occ Med 1998;48:427-31.

  60. Vesey CJ, McAllister H, Langford RM.  A simple, rapid and sensitive semimicro method for the measurement of cyanide in blood.  Ann Clin Biochem 1999;36:755-8.

  61. Baud FJ, Barriot P, Toffis V, Riou B, Vicaut E, Lecarpentier Y, Bourdon R, Astier A, Bismuth C.  Elevated blood cyanide concentrations in victims of smoke inhalation.  N Engl J Med 1991;325:1761-6.

  62. Hall AH and Rumack BH. Cyanide. In: Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug Overdose (LM Haddad and JF Winchester, Eds.) W.B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia, 1990, page 1103-11.

  63. Katona B, Wason S.  Superwarfarin poisoning.  J Emerg Med 1989;7:627-31.

  64. Roper, W.L., Houk, V.N., Falk, H., Binder, S.: Preventing lead poisoning in young children: A statement by the Centers for Disease Control. Atlanta, GA, Centers for Disease Control, 1991. US Department of Health and Human Services publication PB92–155076/HDM.

  65. Gossel TA and Bricker JD. In: Principles of Clinical Toxicology, 3rd Ed.  Raven Press, New York, 1994, page187-8.

  66. Moyer TP. Toxic Metals. In: Tietz Textbook of Clinical Chemstiry, 3rd Ed (CA Burtis, ER Ashwoods, Eds.) W. B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia, 1999: 987-9.

  67. Price RG, Taylor SA, Chivers I, Arce-Tomas M, Crutcher E, Franchini I, et al.  Development and validation of new screening tests for nephrotoxic effects.  Human Exp Toxicol 1996;15(suppl):S10-9.

  68. Clegg DJ, van Gemert M. Expert panel report of human studies on chlorpyrifos and/or other organophosphate exposures.  J Toxicol Environ Health 1999;2:257-79.

  69. Wilson BW, Sanborn JR, O’Malley MA, Henderson JD, Billitti JR.  Monitoring the pesticide-exposed worker.  Occ Med 1997;12:347-63.

  70. Porter WH. Clinical Toxicology. In: Tietz Textbook of Clinical Chemistry, 3rd Ed (CA Burtis, ER Ashwoods, Eds.) W. B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia, 1999: 939-40.

  71. Donald JM, Hooper K. Hopenhayn-Rich C.  Reproductive and developmental toxicity of toluene: a review.  Environ Health Persp 1991;94:237-44.

  72. Hormes JT, Filley CM, Rosenberg NL.  Neurologic sequelae of chronic solvent vapor abuse.  Neurol 1986;36:697-702.

  73. Ikeda M.  Exposure to complex mixtures: implications for biological monitoring.  Toxicol Letters 1995;77:85-91.

  74. Broussard L.  Inhalants.  In: Levine B, Principles of Forensic Toxicology.  AACC Press, Washington DC, 1999:346.

  75. Ogata M, Taguchi T.  Simultaneous determination of urinary creatinine and metabolites of toluene, xylene, styrene, ethylbenzene and phenol by automated high performance liquid chromatography.  Int Arch Occ Environ Health 1988;61:131-40.

  76. Christiani DC, Chang SH, Chun BC, Lee WJ.  Urinary excretion of hippuric acid after consumption of nonalcoholic beverages.  Int J Occ Environ Health 2000;6:238-42.

  77. Clifford MN, Copeland EL, Bloxsidge JP, Mitchell LA.  Hippuric acid as a major excretion produce associated with black tea consumption.  Xenobiotica 2000;30:317-26.