Standards of Laboratory Practices

"Use of Cardiac Markers in Coronary Artery Diseases"


1. World Health Organization. Report of the Joint International Society and Federation of Cardiology/World Health Organization Task Force on Standardization of Clinical Nomenclature. Nomenclature and criteria for diagnosis of ischemic heart disease. Circulation 1979,59:607-9.

2. The Cardiology Roundtable. Perfecting MI Ruleout. Best Practices for Emergency Evaluation of Chest Pain. The Advisory Board Company, 1994.

3. Lee TH, Rouan GW, Weisberg MC, et al. Patients with acute myocardial infarction sent home from the emergency room: clinical characteristics and natural history. Am J Cardiol 1987;60:219-24.

4. Tierney WM, Fitzgerald J, McHenry R, et al. Physicians' estimates of the probability of myocardial infarction in emergency room patients with chest pain. Med Dec Making 1986;6:12-17.

5. Lewas S. Paradox, process and perception: the role of organizations in clinical practice guidelines development. Can Med Assoc J 1995;153:1073-7.

6. Cohn, P. F. Silent myocardial ischemia and infarction. 2nd ed., Dekker, New York, 1989.

7. Adams JE, Abendschein DR, Jaffe AS. BIochemical markers of myocardial injury. Circulation 1993;88:750-63.

8. Apple FS, Preese LM, Panteghini M, Vaidya HC, Bodor G S, Wu AHB. Markers for myocardial injury. Clin Immunoassay 1994;17:6-48.

9. Ohman EM, Casey C, Bengston JR, et al. Early detection of acute myocardial infarction: additional information from serum concentration of myoglobin in patients without ST elevation. Br Heart J 1990;63:335-8.

10. Puleo PR, Meyer D, Wathen C, et al. Use of a rapid assay of subforms of creatine kinase-MB to diagnose or rule out acute myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med 1994;331:561-6.

11. Bhayana V, Cohoe S, Leung F, et al. Diagnostic evaluation of creatine kinase-2 mass and creatine kinase-3 and-2 isoform ratios in early diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction. Clin Chem 1993;39:488-95.

12. Mair J, Morandell D, Genser N, et al. Equivalent early sensitivities of myoglobin, creatine kinase MB mass, creatine kinase isoform ratios, and cardiac troponins I and T for acute myocardial infarction. Clin Chem 1995;41:1266-72.

13. Rabitzsch G, Mair J, Lechleitner P, et al. Immunoenzymometric assay of human glycogen phosphorylase isoenzyme BB in diagnosis of ischemic myocardial injury. Clin Chem 1995;41:966-78.

14. van Nieuwenhoben FA, Kleine AH, Wodzig KWH, et al. Discrimination between myocardial and skeletal muscle injury by assessment of the plasma ratio of myoglobin over fatty acid-binding protein. Circulation 1994;92:2848-54.

15. Katus HA, Remppis A, Neumann FJ, et al. Diagnostic efficiency of troponin T measurements in acute myocardial infarction. Circulation 1991;83:902-12.

16. Jaffe AS, Landt Y, Parvin CA, et al. Comparative sensitivity of cardiac troponin I and lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes for diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction. Clin Chem 1996;42:1770-6.

17. Hafner G, Thome-Kromer B, Schaube J, et al. Cardiac troponins in serum in chronic renal failure. Clin Chem 1994;40:1790-1.

18. Apple FS, Sharkey SW, Hoeft P, Skeate R, Boss E, Dahlmeier BA, Preese LM. The prognostic value of serum cardiac troponin I and T in chronic dialysis patients: a 1-year outcomes analysis. Am J Kidney Dis 1997;29:399-403.

19. The Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) Study Group. The thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) trial. N Engl J Med 1985;312:932-6.

20. The GISSI Study Group. Effectiveness of intravenous thrombolytic treatment in acute myocardial infarction. Lancet 1986;1:397-402.

21. Lott JA, Stang JM. Serum enzymes and isoenzymes in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of myocardial ischemia and necrosis. Clin Chem 1980;26:1241-50.

22. Lee TH, Goldman L. Serum enzyme assays in the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction. Recommendations based on a quantitative analysis. Ann Intern Med 1986;105:221-33.

23. Gibler WB, Lewis LM, Erb RE, et al. Early detection of acute myocardial infarction in patients presenting with chest pain and nondiagnostic ECGs: Serial CK-MB sampling in the emergency department. Ann Emerg Med 1990;19:1359-66.

24. Gibler WB, Gibler CD, Weinshenker E, et al. Myoglobin as an early indicator of acute myocardial infarction. Ann Emerg Med 1987;16:851-6.

25. Panteghini M, Pagani F. Diagnostic value of a single measurement of troponn T in serum for suspected acute myocardial infarction. Clin Chem 1994;40:673-4.

26. Hamm CW, Goldmann BU, Heeschen C, Kreymann G, Berger J, Meinertz T. Emergency room triage of patients with acute chest pain by means of rapid testing for cardiac troponin T or troponin I. New Engl J Med 1997;337:1648-53.

27. Fuster V, Badimon L, Badimon JJ, Cheseboro JH. The pathogensis of coronary artery disease and the acute coronary syndromes. N Engl J Med 1992;326:242-250 and 310-318.

28. Lindahl B, Venge P, Wallentin L, and the FRISC Study Group. Relation between troponin T and the risk of subsequent cardiac events in unstable coronary artery disease. Circulation 1996;93:1651-76.

29. Jesse RL, Kontos MC, Zhang DJ, Ornato JP, Tatum JL, Anderson P. Minimal elevation of troponin I on admission identifies patients at risk for adverse cardiac outcomes [abstract]. J Am Coll Cardiol 1997;29 (suppl A):273A.

30. National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards: How to define and determine reference intervals in the clinical laboratory: approved guideline, NCCLS document C28-A, Villanova, PA, 1995, NCCLS.

31. Stubbs P, Collinson P, Moseley D, Greenwood T, Noble M. Prospective study of the role of cardiac troponin T in patients with unstable angina. Br Med J 1996;313:262-4.

32. Lindahl B, Venge P, Wallentin L. Troponin T indentifies patients with unstable coronary artery disease who benefit from long-term antithrombotic protection. Fragmin in Unstable Coronary Artery Disease (FRISC) Study Group. JACC 1997;29:43-8.

33. Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults. Summary of the second report of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) expert panel on detection, evaluation and treatment of high blood cholesterol in adults. JAMA. 1993;269:3015-3023.

34. Thayapran N, Prigent F, Steingart R,, Feng YJ, Lowenkron D, and Wu A. Is there a release of cardiac troponin during exercise testing? Circulation 1997;96(suppl):I-461.

35. Kwong TC, Fitzpatrick PG, Rothbard RL. Activities of some enzymes in serum after therapy with intracoronary streptokinase in acute mycardial infarction. Clin Chem 1984;30:731-4.

36. Zabel M, Hohnloser SH, Koster W, et al. Analysis of creatine kinase, CK-MB, myoglobin, and troponin T time-activity curves for early assessment of coronary artery reperfusion after intravenous thrombolysis. Circulation 1993;87:1542-50.

37. Apple FS, Henry TD, Berger CR, Landt YA. Early monitoring of serum cardiac troponin I for assessment of coronary reperfusion following thrombolytic therapy. Am J Clin Pathol 1996;105:6-10.

38. Hohnloser SH, Zabel M, Kasper W, et al. Assessment of coronary artery patency after thrombolytic therapy: accurate prediction utilizing the combined analysis of three noninvasive markers. J Am Coll Cardiol 1991;18:44-49.

39. Baldermann SC, Bhayana JN, Steinbach JJ. Perioperative myocardial infarction: a diagnostic dilemma. Ann Thorac Surg 1980;30:370-7.

40. Strom S, Bendz R, Olin C, Lundberg S. Serum enzymes with special reference to CK-MB following coronary bypass surgery. Scand J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1980;13:53-9.

41. Katus HA, Schoeppenthau M, Tanzeem A, et al. Non-invasive assessment of perioperative myocardial cell damage by circulating cardiac troponin T. Br Heart J 1991;65:259-64.

42. Etievent JP, Chocron S, Toubin G, et al. Use of cardiac troponin I as a marker of perioperative myocardial ischemia. Ann Thoracic Surg 1995;59:1192-4.

43. Metzler H, Gries M, Rehak P, Lang TH, Fruthwald S, Toller W. Perioperative myocardial cell injury: the role of troponins. Br J Anaesth 1997;78:386-90.

44. Grande P, Christiansen C, Alstrup K. Comparison of ASAT, CK, CK-MB, and LD for the estimation of acute myocardial infarct size in man. Clin Chim Acta 1983;128:329-35.

45. Vatner SF, Baig H, Manders WT, Maroko PR. Effects of coronary artery reperfusion on myocardial infarct size calculated from creatine kinase. J Clin Invest 1977;61:1048-56.

46. Nagai R, Chiu CC, Yamaoki K, et al. Evaluation of methods for estimating infarct size by myosin LC2: comparison with cardiac enzymes. Am J Physiol 1983;245:H413-9.

47. Henderson, AR, Bhayana W. A modest proposal for the consistent presentation of ROC plots in Clinical Chemistry. Clin Chem 1995;41:1205-6.

48. Mair J. Progress in myocardial damage detection: new biochemical markers for clinicians. Crit Rev Clin Lab Sci 1997;34:1-66.

49. Adams, J. E., Abendschein, D. R., and Jaffe, A. S. Biochemical markers of myocardial injury. Is creatine kinase the choice for the 1990s? Circulation 1993;88:750-63.

50. Apple FS. Acute myocardial infarction and coronary reperfusion. Serum cardiac markers for the 1990s. Am J Clin Pathol 1992;97:217-26.

51. Apple FS, Sharkey S, Falahati A, Christensen D, Miller E, McCoy M, Murakami MA. A prospective study of implementing cardiac troponin I testing for detection of myocardial infarction. Clin Chem 1996;42:S97.

52. Martins JT, Li DJ, Baskin LB, et al. Comparison of cardiac troponin I and lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes for the late diagnosis of myocardial injury. Am J Clin Pathol 1996;106:705-8.

53. Wu AHB, Clive J. Impact of CK-MB testing policies on hospital length of stay and laboratory costs for myocardial infarction and chest pain patients. Clin Chem 1997;43:326-32.

54. Anderson FP, Jesse RL, Nicholson CS, Miller WG. The costs and effectiveness of a rapid diagnostic and treatment protocol for myocardial infarction. In: Assessing clinical outcomes. Utilizing appropriate laboratory testing to decrease healthcare costs and improve patient outcomes. Bowie LJ. AACC Leadership Series, Washington DC; 1996:20-4.

55. Antman E, Grudzien C, Sacks D. Evaluation of a rapid bedside assay for the detection of serum cardiac troponin T. JAMA 1995;273:1279-8.

56. Brogan GX. Evaluation of Cardiac STATus CK-MB/Myoglobin device for rapidly ruling out myocardial infarction. J Acad Emerg Med 1996.

57. Kricka LJ, Schmerfeld-Pruss D, Senior M, Goodman DBP, Kaladas P. Interference by human anti-mouse antibody in two-site immunoassays. Clin Chem 1990;36:892-4.

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